Four Major Myopia Control Strategies
Controlling the progression of myopia is an urgent matter that requires consistent efforts. ClearVision Eye Care provides comprehensive myopia control services. Here are four videos showcasing major myopia control strategies:
Dr. Chow Po Chee, Purdence: Atropine Eye Drops
Dr. Chu Sui Chun, Victor: Myopia Control Lenses (Glasses)
Optometrist Chung Hoi Ching, Kenny: Orthokeratology (Ortho-K)
Dr. Chu Chung Yin, Ben: Myopia Control Soft Contact Lenses
What are the causes of myopia?
The cause of childhood myopia is mainly due to an elongated eyeball, which causes light to focus in front of the retina, resulting in blurred vision when looking at distant objects. The growth rate of the eyeball is influenced by genetics, visual habits, and the amount of time spent on outdoor activities during the day. The ages between six and fourteen are the peak period for myopia progression in children. With changes in educational methods, children inevitably have to use electronic devices as learning tools in the classroom. Prolonged usage of these devices can contribute to the progression of myopia. Therefore, parents should implement a childhood myopia control program for their children as early as possible to greatly reduce the risk of eye disorders.
Why do children need to go for regular eye exams at an ophthalmology clinic when they already undergo annual check-ups at a health clinic?A vision check at a health clinic serves as a screening to determine whether a child's vision is within acceptable parameters. However, waiting for the clinic to notify about abnormal vision often results in missing the golden opportunity for preventive treatment. In recent years, children have been exposed to electronic devices more frequently. If myopia develops without proper treatment and control, the progression can be rapid and beyond expectations.
If parents suspect their child has myopia, what should be their next step?Don't worry too much. Parents can start by taking their child to an ophthalmologist for a comprehensive eye examination. We offer a range of detailed eye tests, and the doctor will make a diagnosis and provide suitable treatment options and recommendations for prevention and control.
What does the myopia control assessment for schoolchildren include?The myopia control assessment for schoolchildren includes the following: Visual acuity examination, Refractive error measurement, Colour vision test, Stereopsis (depth perception) test, Binocular vision assessment, Non-contact tonometry (eye pressure measurement), Cycloplegic refraction (refractive error measurement after pupil dilation), Fundus photography, Corneal topography (for fitting contact lenses, if needed), Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning (for myopia control programs), Multi, Spectral refractive topography (MRT) measurement, Optical biometry (measurement of eye axial length), Comprehensive eye health examination, Clinical diagnosis report and Myopia control recommendations.
Does wearing glasses worsen the degree of myopia in schoolchildren? Is it true that the prescription for myopia glasses available in the market is not accurate or suitable?Firstly, it is important to understand that the main cause of myopia is the elongation of the eyeball.The design of conventional single-focus glasses is intended to focus the central image onto the macula, which is the central part of the retina. While this corrects central vision, the peripheral image falls behind the retina. In order to obtain clear imaging in the periphery, the peripheral retina keeps growing backward, leading to an elongation of the eye axis, which is the known progression of myopia.
However, it is important to note that not wearing glasses or not having the correct prescription can actually accelerate the progression of myopia. Without proper vision correction, it not only affects daily life but also creates a vicious cycle of "seeing worse as you keep looking." Especially in children, in order to see objects clearly, they may develop the habit of squinting, which can further impact the degree of astigmatism.
Which myopia control strategy is the best and most suitable for my child?Currently, research has shown that there are four methods that can effectively control myopia and slow down the elongation of the eyeball. These include atropine eye drops, orthokeratology (commonly known as OK lenses), myopia control glasses, and myopia control contact lenses. Each of these methods has its own advantages, and their effectiveness is comparable, so it cannot be generalized which one is the best. Among them, atropine eye drops work differently from the other three methods, and the best myopia control results can be achieved when they are used in combination. The doctor will discuss with the parents the most suitable and effective approach based on the child's degree of myopia and the rate of eye axis elongation.
- Lam CS-Y, Lam C-H, Cheng SC-K & Chan LY-L. Prevalence of myopia among Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: changes over two decades. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012, 32, 17–24.
- CUHK Children Myopia Prevention Programme https://www.ovs.cuhk.edu.hk/en/community-engagement/cuhk-children-myopia-prevention-programme/#1548924214627-2877afe2-cb44
- Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012.
- Yam, J. C., Jiang, Y., Tang, S. M., Law, A. K., Chan, J. J., Wong, E., ... & Pang, C. P. (2019). Low-concentration atropine for myopia progression (LAMP) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% atropine eye drops in myopia control. Ophthalmology, 126(1), 113-124.
- Walline, J. J., Jones, L. A., & Sinnott, L. T. (2009). Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 93(9), 1181-1185.
- Lam, C. S., Tang, W. C., Lee, P. H., Zhang, H. Y., Qi, H., Hasegawa, K., & To, C. H. (2022). Myopia control effect of defocus incorporated multiple segments (DIMS) spectacle lens in Chinese children: results of a 3-year follow-up study. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 106(8), 1110-1114.
- Chamberlain, P., Bradley, A., Arumugam, B., Hammond, D., McNally, J., Logan, N. S., ... & Young, G. (2022). Long-term effect of dual-focus contact lenses on myopia progression in children: a 6-year multicenter clinical trial. Optometry and Vision Science, 99(3), 204-212.
- Tan, Q., Ng, A. L., Cheng, G. P., Woo, V. C., & Cho, P. (2022). Combined 0.01% atropine with orthokeratology in childhood myopia control (AOK) study: A 2-year randomized clinical trial. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 101723.