Myopia Control Program and Treatment
Controlling the progression of myopia is an urgent matter that requires consistent efforts. It is crucial to implement a myopia control program as early as possible to effectively manage the progression of diopters. By doing so, one can avoid the troubles caused by high myopia in adulthood, leading to a more convenient lifestyle and enhanced learning efficiency. This sets a solid foundation for a better quality of life in the future.
Atropine Eye Drops
Originally, atropine eye drops were used to dilate the patient's pupils during ophthalmic examinations. However, in recent years, it has been discovered that long-term use of appropriate doses of atropine eye drops can effectively control the progression of myopia in children. The higher the concentration of the eye drops, the better the control effect.
- Effectively controlling the progression of myopia by up to 51%.4
- It is convenient to simply instill a prescribed amount of eye drops at regular intervals each day.
- For myopia control, typically low concentrations of 0.01% and 0.05% are used. These concentrations have minimal side effects.
- A small number of children may experience adverse reactions such as photosensitivity or blurred vision.
- Atropine eye drops alone do not correct vision and need to be used in conjunction with eyeglasses or frames.
Orthokeratology (Orthok) is a type of specially designed rigid gas-permeable contact lens that helps correct vision by altering the curvature of the cornea. Clinical data has shown that it effectively slows down the elongation of the eyeball, thereby reducing the progression of myopia.。
- It can slow down axial elongation by up to 56%.5
- Wear it at night while sleeping to shape the cornea.
- Clear vision without wearing glasses during the day.
- There is a possibility of experiencing some complications, such as damage to the corneal surface, which may result in issues with vision or discomfort.
- Daily lens care is required, and the frequency of follow-up visits for check-ups is also higher.
Myopia Control Lenses (Glasses)
The lenses, through their unique design, can project the central image onto the macula of the retina, resulting in clear vision. At the same time, they project the peripheral image in front of the retina, creating a "myopic defocus" signal that inhibits axial elongation. This not only provides refractive correction but also helps control the progression of myopia.
- It can reduce the progression of myopia by up to 52%.6
- Non-invasive method.
- Similar to regular eyeglasses, daily wear of these lenses can provide clear vision.
- Simultaneously correcting refractive errors while controlling the progression of myopia.
- Some individuals may require time to adapt to the peripheral vision design, and the effectiveness can be influenced by the positioning of the lenses during wear.
Myopia Control Soft Contact Lenses
The Importance of Myopia Control in Children
Research indicates that the prevalence of myopia in 6-year-old children reaches 18.3%, which is the highest among all countries and regions in Europe and Asia,The prevalence of myopia among 12-year-old schoolchildren increases to 61.5%. 1,2Furthermore, the prevalence of myopia among university students is as high as 95%. Scientists predicted that by 2050, nearly half of the global population will be affected by myopia.3。
6 Years Old Students
The prevalence of myopia among 6-year-old student is 18.3%.
12 Years Old Students
The prevalence of myopia among 12-year-old student is 61.5%
The prevalence of myopia among university students is 95%
The ages between 6 and 14 are considered the peak period for myopia progression.
As myopia progresses from adolescence to adulthood, with stabilization typically occurring around 18-20 years old, the risk of developing high myopia increases. Individuals with myopia of 800 diopters or higher face an elevated risk of severe eye conditions like retinal detachment, cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration.
Clarity Myopia Control Centre provides comprehensive care for your myopia management needs.
Optometrist Kenny Chung Debunks Myths about Children Myopia
Comprehensive Children Myopia Control Assessment.
- Visual Acuity
- Colour Vision
- Binocular Vision
- Intraocular Pressure
- Cycloplegic Refraction
- Fundus Imaging
- Corneal Topography (for contact lens fitting)
- OCT (for monitoring treatment effectiveness)
- Retinal Defocus Measurement (using Clarity Exclusive MRT Instrument)
- Axial Length Measurement
- Ocular Health Assessment
- Clinical Diagnosis Report
- Myopia Control Recommendations
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What are the causes of myopia?
The causes of childhood myopia are primarily attributed to the elongation of the eyeball, which causes the light to focus in front of the retina, resulting in blurred distance vision. The growth rate of the eyeball is influenced by genetic factors, visual habits, and the amount of time spent engaging in outdoor activities during the day. The age range of six to fourteen is considered the peak period for the progression of myopia in children. With the changing educational methods, children are inevitably exposed to electronic devices as learning tools in the classroom. Prolonged usage of these devices can increase the risk of myopia progression. Therefore, it is important for parents to initiate childhood myopia control programs for their children as early as possible, as it can significantly reduce the chances of developing eye conditions in the future.
Why is it necessary for children to have regular eye examinations at an eye clinic, even though they undergo annual health check-ups?Vision screenings conducted at health clinics are considered "screening" in nature and can determine whether a child's vision meets the required standards. However, relying solely on these screenings may lead to missed opportunities for timely preventive treatment. With the increasing exposure of children to electronic devices in recent years, if myopia develops and is not effectively treated and controlled, the progression can be rapid and beyond expectations. Therefore, regular eye examinations are necessary to detect and address any vision abnormalities in a timely manner, ensuring appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures are implemented.
What should parents do next if they suspect their child has myopia?Don't worry too much. Parents can first take their child to an eye clinic for a detailed examination. We provide a range of comprehensive eye tests, and the doctor will make a diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment options and relevant preventive control recommendations.
What does the assessment for controlling childhood myopia include?Visual Acuity・Refraction・Colour Vision・Stereoposis・Binocular Vision・Intraocular Pressure・Cycloplegic Refraction・Fundus Imaging・Corneal Topography (for contact lens fitting)・OCT (for monitoring treatment effectiveness)・Retinal Defocus Measurement (using Clarity Exclusive MRT Instrument)・Axial Length Measurement・Ocular Health Assessment・Clinical Diagnosis Report and Myopia Control Recommendations
Does wearing glasses make the degree of myopia in children worsen? Is it true that inadequate prescription of myopia glasses is circulating in the market?Firstly, it's important to understand that the primary cause of myopia is the elongation of the eyeball. The design of conventional single-focus eyeglasses is aimed at focusing the central image onto the macula, the central area of the retina. While this corrects central vision, the peripheral image falls behind the retina. In order to obtain clear imaging in the periphery, the peripheral retina continuously elongates towards the back, resulting in axial elongation of the eye, which is commonly referred to as myopia progression.
Indeed, not wearing glasses or wearing inadequate prescription glasses when having myopia can actually lead to faster progression of myopia. Without proper vision correction, it not only affects daily life but also contributes to a vicious cycle of "getting worse as you see more." Especially in children, in order to see objects clearly, they may develop the habit of squinting, which can further impact the degree of astigmatism.
Which myopia control program is the best and most suitable for my child?Currently, research has shown four methods that can effectively control myopia and slow down the elongation of the eyeball. These methods include atropine eye drops, orthokeratology (commonly known as Ortho-K lenses), myopia control glasses, and myopia control contact lenses. Each of these methods has its own advantages, and their effectiveness is comparable, so it cannot be generalized. The mechanism of myopia control differs for atropine eye drops compared to the other three methods, and the best myopia control results can be achieved when used in combination. The doctor will discuss with the parents the most suitable and effective approach based on the child's degree of myopia and the rate of axial elongation.
- Lam CS-Y, Lam C-H, Cheng SC-K & Chan LY-L. Prevalence of myopia among Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: changes over two decades. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012, 32, 17–24.
- CUHK Children Myopia Prevention Programme https://www.ovs.cuhk.edu.hk/en/community-engagement/cuhk-children-myopia-prevention-programme/#1548924214627-2877afe2-cb44
- Flitcroft DI. The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2012.
- Yam, J. C., Jiang, Y., Tang, S. M., Law, A. K., Chan, J. J., Wong, E., ... & Pang, C. P. (2019). Low-concentration atropine for myopia progression (LAMP) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 0.05%, 0.025%, and 0.01% atropine eye drops in myopia control. Ophthalmology, 126(1), 113-124.
- Walline, J. J., Jones, L. A., & Sinnott, L. T. (2009). Corneal reshaping and myopia progression. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 93(9), 1181-1185.
- Lam, C. S., Tang, W. C., Lee, P. H., Zhang, H. Y., Qi, H., Hasegawa, K., & To, C. H. (2022). Myopia control effect of defocus incorporated multiple segments (DIMS) spectacle lens in Chinese children: results of a 3-year follow-up study. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 106(8), 1110-1114.
- Chamberlain, P., Bradley, A., Arumugam, B., Hammond, D., McNally, J., Logan, N. S., ... & Young, G. (2022). Long-term effect of dual-focus contact lenses on myopia progression in children: a 6-year multicenter clinical trial. Optometry and Vision Science, 99(3), 204-212.
- Tan, Q., Ng, A. L., Cheng, G. P., Woo, V. C., & Cho, P. (2022). Combined 0.01% atropine with orthokeratology in childhood myopia control (AOK) study: A 2-year randomized clinical trial. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 101723.